All the manipulative experiments are being carried out at three sites in Spain (Aranjuez, Sax and Sorbas), located along an aridity gradient from the center to the SE of Spain:

At these sites, climate manipulations are being carried out using open top chambers and rainfall shelters.

View of an experimental plot with an open top chamber and a rainfall shelter (left), and of part of the area in central Spain (Aranjuez research station) where the Experiment 1.1 has been set up (right).

Click here for additional pictures of the Aranjuez and Sax research stations.